Thursday, December 26, 2013

Want to Earn 6 Figures and Live YOung and Healthy Inside and OUT?

Pamper your entire body with the new Essential Body Renewal from Jeunesse Global. Jeunesse Global- the leader in anti-aging technology with Luminesce Adult Stem Cell Technology and Nutrigen nutritionals. Quality products all made in the USA. Business opportunity made Globally. Join our team of leaders. call or text me- Dennis Mark Dela Cruz @ 09186814686/09364090128. Dr. Nathan Newman explains the importance of Adult Stem Cells for looking younger, erasing wrinkles, healing acne and more. Dr. Nathan Newman explains how adult stem cells are revolutionizing medicine and how they're already being used in treatment of cosmetic and reconstructive to rejuvenate damaged tissues and improve skin condition and quality. He also explains how Jeunesse Global's Luminesce contains the same biological language that stem cells use to repair cells and rejuvenate tissue and skin. The Jeunesse Products 1. Jeunesse® Global LUMINESCE™ cellular rejuvenation serum is a a rejuvenation product unlike any other. This silky serum has our highest percentage of growth factor complex to super-charge cell renewal. Use it twice daily after cleansing and as a primer to our daily moisturizing complex or advanced night repair. 2. RESERVE™ makes the feeling of youthful living last. This tasty gel contains powerful antioxidants including Resveratrol that repair free radical damage and protect cells against future harm. Your cells stay healthier, live longer, and leave you with the enduring effects of youth. BENEFITS • Makes young cells last longer, super-charging health and well-being • Delays cell aging with Resveratrol, a unique antioxidant shown to extend lifespan • Includes other antioxidants from acai, pomegranate, green tea, aloe vera, and grapeseed • Defends against free radical damage linked to many health issues • Supports improved cardiovascular function with anthocyanins • Aids digestion through essential fatty acids • Increases metabolism to assist healthy weight loss • Penetrates red blood cells and helps protect against oxidated stress* • Makes nutrients quickly available through bio-available gel • Tastes delicious thanks to natural fruit sources *In clinical tests QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Q. Why do we hear so much about free radicals? A. Medical and nutrition experts recognize that free radicals can lead to negative health consequences. Free radicals attack our cells continually, opening up the possibility of degenerative health concerns and contributing to the aging process. Q. Why is it important to consume RESERVE™? A. With its unique combination of antioxidants, anthocyanins and essential fatty acids, RESERVE™ is an excellent defense against free radical damage. Daily consumption of this delicious fruit blend will help you to incorporate good nutrition as part of a healthy diet. Q. What is the absorption rate into the body for this product? A. RESERVE™ is absorbed into the body within minutes. The bio-available gel form of our product makes it much more absorbable than encapsulated products. Q. We often see that resveratrol is available in 500-1000 mg capsules. To maximize the anti-aging benefits of resveratrol, what is the best dosage? A. RESERVE™ contains an optimal dosage amount of 75 mg of resveratrol per serving. The body's ability to absorb this important substance is even greater because of the combination of natural fruit ingredients which all work together to help achieve excellent nutrition. The mega-doses in those capsules are not readily absorbed into the body. Q. What is the effect of combining resveratrol with the other ingredients in RESERVE™? A. Jeunesse has created a perfect balance with resveratrol, blueberry puree, pomegranate extract, grapeseed, aloe vera, acai and green tea. These ingredients work synergistically together to increase the beneficial effects of anti-aging and to promote an overall feeling of wellness in the body with massive doses of antioxidants. Q. Is there a time frame of when to expect results from using the product? A. 14-21 days to begin the anti-aging benefits and 5-7 days for an increased feeling of overall wellness and vitality. 3.AM/PM Essentials These unique dietary supplements slow the symptoms of premature aging. Potent vitamins and minerals target DNA and delay telomeres deterioration. AM Essentials supplements release energy-enhancing nutrients that bring mental clarity and focus. The PM Essentials formula balances systems for a restful sleep. JEUNESSE® GLOBAL HOME BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY Are you looking to get involved in the Jeunesse® Global home based business opportunity? Do you have an interest anti-aging? Would you like to make a 6 figure income helping others look and feel younger? Find out how you can live anywhere you want, create the life of your dreams, and be mentored by two 7 figure income earners who are already doing it. We work with distributors in 92 countries around the world. Get the best business building systems, training and support. For more details visit: http://www.dennisdelacruz.jeunesseglobal.com JEUNESSE™ GLOBAL DOES BUSINESS IN 92 COUNTRIES Jeunesse® Global is doing business in the following countries and territories: Jeunesse Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cameroun, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, Congo, the Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, United States of America, and Vietnam.

Friday, December 20, 2013

Live Live Young Get Results That Lasts...

Pamper your entire body with the new Essential Body Renewal from Jeunesse Global. Jeunesse Global- the leader in anti-aging technology with Luminesce Adult Stem Cell Technology and Nutrigen nutritionals. Quality products all made in the USA. Business opportunity made Globally. Join our team of leaders. call or text me- Dennis Mark Dela Cruz @ 09186814686/09364090128. Dr. Nathan Newman explains the importance of Adult Stem Cells for looking younger, erasing wrinkles, healing acne and more. Dr. Nathan Newman explains how adult stem cells are revolutionizing medicine and how they're already being used in treatment of cosmetic and reconstructive to rejuvenate damaged tissues and improve skin condition and quality. He also explains how Jeunesse Global's Luminesce contains the same biological language that stem cells use to repair cells and rejuvenate tissue and skin. The Jeunesse Products 1. Jeunesse® Global LUMINESCE™ cellular rejuvenation serum is a a rejuvenation product unlike any other. This silky serum has our highest percentage of growth factor complex to super-charge cell renewal. Use it twice daily after cleansing and as a primer to our daily moisturizing complex or advanced night repair. 2. RESERVE™ makes the feeling of youthful living last. This tasty gel contains powerful antioxidants including Resveratrol that repair free radical damage and protect cells against future harm. Your cells stay healthier, live longer, and leave you with the enduring effects of youth. BENEFITS • Makes young cells last longer, super-charging health and well-being • Delays cell aging with Resveratrol, a unique antioxidant shown to extend lifespan • Includes other antioxidants from acai, pomegranate, green tea, aloe vera, and grapeseed • Defends against free radical damage linked to many health issues • Supports improved cardiovascular function with anthocyanins • Aids digestion through essential fatty acids • Increases metabolism to assist healthy weight loss • Penetrates red blood cells and helps protect against oxidated stress* • Makes nutrients quickly available through bio-available gel • Tastes delicious thanks to natural fruit sources *In clinical tests QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Q. Why do we hear so much about free radicals? A. Medical and nutrition experts recognize that free radicals can lead to negative health consequences. Free radicals attack our cells continually, opening up the possibility of degenerative health concerns and contributing to the aging process. Q. Why is it important to consume RESERVE™? A. With its unique combination of antioxidants, anthocyanins and essential fatty acids, RESERVE™ is an excellent defense against free radical damage. Daily consumption of this delicious fruit blend will help you to incorporate good nutrition as part of a healthy diet. Q. What is the absorption rate into the body for this product? A. RESERVE™ is absorbed into the body within minutes. The bio-available gel form of our product makes it much more absorbable than encapsulated products. Q. We often see that resveratrol is available in 500-1000 mg capsules. To maximize the anti-aging benefits of resveratrol, what is the best dosage? A. RESERVE™ contains an optimal dosage amount of 75 mg of resveratrol per serving. The body's ability to absorb this important substance is even greater because of the combination of natural fruit ingredients which all work together to help achieve excellent nutrition. The mega-doses in those capsules are not readily absorbed into the body. Q. What is the effect of combining resveratrol with the other ingredients in RESERVE™? A. Jeunesse has created a perfect balance with resveratrol, blueberry puree, pomegranate extract, grapeseed, aloe vera, acai and green tea. These ingredients work synergistically together to increase the beneficial effects of anti-aging and to promote an overall feeling of wellness in the body with massive doses of antioxidants. Q. Is there a time frame of when to expect results from using the product? A. 14-21 days to begin the anti-aging benefits and 5-7 days for an increased feeling of overall wellness and vitality. 3.AM/PM Essentials These unique dietary supplements slow the symptoms of premature aging. Potent vitamins and minerals target DNA and delay telomeres deterioration. AM Essentials supplements release energy-enhancing nutrients that bring mental clarity and focus. The PM Essentials formula balances systems for a restful sleep. JEUNESSE® GLOBAL HOME BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY Are you looking to get involved in the Jeunesse® Global home based business opportunity? Do you have an interest anti-aging? Would you like to make a 6 figure income helping others look and feel younger? Find out how you can live anywhere you want, create the life of your dreams, and be mentored by two 7 figure income earners who are already doing it. We work with distributors in 92 countries around the world. Get the best business building systems, training and support. For more details visit: http://www.dennisdelacruz.jeunesseglobal.com JEUNESSE™ GLOBAL DOES BUSINESS IN 92 COUNTRIES Jeunesse® Global is doing business in the following countries and territories: Jeunesse Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cameroun, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, Congo, the Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, United States of America, and Vietnam.

Saturday, February 13, 2010

peopling of the philippines


Peopling of the Philippines

A Project

Presented to

Prof. Florisa B. Simeon

Faculty, Social Sciences

Philippine Normal University

Taft Avenue, Manila

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Course Requirements for

Philippine History

Dennis Mark A. Dela Cruz

1-14

Sept. 22, 2005

Origin of the Filipinos

“He who does not look back to where he came from will not know where he is going.”

- Anonymous

As the saying goes, many theories have been written regarding the origin of the Filipinos. Yet, no adequate evidences can prove where, when, and how our early ancestors came. What we have are the best explanations that could help us trace if not have in mind the origin of our ascendants: the theory of creation, theory of migration and the theory of evolution.

But because we are Christians, we believe in the Holy Bible’s story of God’s creation of man. We take it as true and any other explanation about how the early people came are merely the product of the human thinking and it can never be true.

The Theory of Creation

Then God said “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have a dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.”

-Genesis 1:26

Almighty God is our creator, we must love all our fellows whatever race we belonged because God is so good that he created and loved us. As Christians, we don’t believe that human kind evolved from apelike creatures but rather we do believe that we are created by God in His image and likeness.

According to the Holy Bible, people on earth descended from the first man and woman created by God - Adam and Eve. They have lived in the Garden of Eden and from them all other people on earth came. In Genesis 5:3-32, these are Adam’s descendants to Noah: Adam was the father of Seth and Seth became the father of Enosh. A son named Kenan was born to Enosh. Mahalalel descended from Kenan and he became the father of Jared. Before Jared’s death he became the father of Enoch and the latter was the father of Methuselah. From Methuselah came Lamech who became the father of Noah. According to the Holy Bible, Noah had three sons namely; Shem, Ham, and Japeth. After the Great Flood, Noah together with his sons and their families were left and settled the earth. One of Japeth’s son named Javan, a grandson of Noah, came out four sons – Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Rodanim (Genesis 10:1-4). Thus, according to the Holy Bible, “From these the riverine people spread out with their men of their own languages into their own estate within their nations.” In that manner, a Jesuit historian, named Fr. Francisco Colin, wrote that the first settlers of our country was Tarshish together with his brothers and their offspring1, The descendants of these Biblical characters spread in the different parts of world that presently we know Asia, including the archipelagos of our country- the Philippines.

On the other hand, scientists strongly believe to their evolutionary theory. We Christians do not believe that we originated from apelike creatures but rather we believe that people on earth were created by God in his own image and likeness because He loved us. Any other explanations of how the early man exists can never be true because those are merely product of human thinking.

Myths and Legends

There are many imaginative stories about the origin of the Filipinos, but all of these are not true. These legends and tales were told by old folks to little children to get them interested in their past.Every group of people had their own stories on how the world came to be populated, For the Bisayan’s, first man and woman descended from Sikalak and Sikabay who came out when a bamboo split apart:2

Long, long ago, two gods in the sky got married. After days, they quarreled and because of anger, Kaptan told Maguayan to go away and the latter left with a heavy heart. When the goddess had gone, Kaptan felt very lonely realizing that what he had done to his wife was wrong. He looked for Maguayan in the skies but it was too late. He never found her. To ease his grievances he planted a bamboo in a garden called Kabilyawan. He kept himself busy planting plants. The bamboo grew fastest into a beautiful plant.

Kaptan was very happy to the beauty of his creation. “Ah!” he murmured,’if Maguayan were here, she would enjoy this beautiful sight. She could fell and listen to the sighs of the breeze, and the moving leaves blending in a song of hope and joy. One day, while Kaptan was watching the breeze playing with the bamboo leaves, said to himself, “I will make creatures to take care of these plants for me”. After he said these words, the bamboo broke into two sections; First man stepped out from the slit and Kaptan named the man Sikalak which means “sturdy one”, then later men were called si lalak or lalaki for short. From the other half of node stepped out a woman. She was called by the God Sikabay, and became the partner of Sikalak. Thus, women were called babaye or babae.

The man and woman took care the plants, Kaptan left and traveled to look for Maguayan. When the God had gone, Sikalak asked Sikabay to marry him but Sikabay refused. In the end, after asking tunas of the sea and earthquake, Sikabay was convinced to marry Sikalak. Their first child was a boy and they called him Sibu and their daughter was named Samar. From them came the Filipinos.

The other version of this legend state that the first man was Malakas and the first woman was Maganda who both of them came out when a bamboo split apart caused by the clever bird who pecked the bamboo.

The second legend is more interesting.To the Muslims, the first settlers descended from a beautiful daughter of a goddess who fell on the Sulu islands while wandering.3

Many, many years ago, Bumbaran was ruled by a mighty ruler and great warrior named Malikol Mis’ra. He had a son named Kesanol Besari but unfortunately, this son was stolen from the nursery of Bumbaran by a steel-clawed bird and was brought to the land of Derol Din, the region of the giants above the clouds. This region was ruled by a powerful and mighty ruler of the sky world named Malikol Jian. When Kesanol Besari was old enough, he married Sitarnasi, the beautiful daughter of Malikol Jian. From their marriage were born Putri and Sugra. At that time, Kesanol Besari succeeded his father in law as the ruler of the sky. The spirit of his father appeared in one of his dreams, telling him to go back to earth. Kesanol Besari was puzzled because he firmly believed that he was born of the sky. In this manner, he began to ask the old men about his ancestry and finally Malikol Jian told him the whole story of how he was been to Derol Din.

After knowing this, he decided and asked his wife to accompany him to visit the land of his father. Together with their children Putri and Sugra, Malikol Jian lent them the magic cape which transported the whole clan from the sky to the earth.

Unexpectedly, while on their way, a sudden outburst of wind blew away the young beautiful princess Putri and she fell on Sulu island. Very lucky she was unharmed because she fell right on the spot where the agile and clever hunter of Sulu, was hunting. Tangba-a- Rugung, the young hunter fell in love with the princess and they were married. Lawalanan-sa-sulog, a beautiful girl was born to them and became the ancestors of all the Maranaws as well as the whole mankind.



Synthesis

  • According to the Holy Bible, God created the first man and the first woman – Adam and Eve respectively
  • Adam’s descendants to Noah are as follows; from Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Enoch, Jared, Mahalalel, Methuselah, Lamech and Noah
  • Fr. Francisco Colin wrote that the first settlers of our country were Tarshish together with his brothers and their offsprings.
  • For the Bisayans, mankind descended from Sikalak and Sikabay, first man and first woman who came out when a bamboo split apart.
  • To the Muslims, the first inhabitants of the earth descended from Putri, the beautiful princess of Sitarnasi who fell on the Sulu islands.

The Migration Theory

There were already inhabitants in the archipelago before the arrival of the Spanish colonizers. Many researches have been made by historians and Anthropologists regarding the origin of the Filipinos but they only come up with assumptions. No adequate evidences and information can show how people in the Philippines came.

The Migration Theory of Dr. H. Otley Beyer is the most popularly known version of the peopling of the Philippines. However, his assumptions is now under attack and disputed by modern anthropologists and historians, particularly that the first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos.4

On the other hand, Dr. Beyer arranged the peopling of the Philippines into waves of migration as follows:

The first to reach the archipelago was the cave man “Dawn Man” type, the prehistoric cousin of the Java man, Peking man and other Asian homo sapiens. This primitive man emerged at the dawn of time, thus, Dr. Beyer called him “Dawn Man”. It was assumed that he appeared in the Philippines by way of land bridges while hunting Pleistocene animals. This ancient man subsisted primarily through raw foods and fruits they were able to accumulate in their surroundings. The “Dawn Man” had sturdy muscles and had thick hair. He had no knowledge in agriculture.5

The inhabitants of the archipelago after the disappearance of the prototype man were the Negritos. They arrived between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago. According to the migration theory, they reached the Philippines through the land bridges from Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Australia and settled here after the land bridges sank below the seas. They are also called Aeta, Ati and Ita. The aboriginal group had a primitive culture which belonged to the Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age. They are kinky, dark haired and black skinned pygmies, five feet tall height, round black eyes and have flat noses. Nergitos are nomadic and had lived through hunting, as their chief activity; fruits and roots gathering supplemented their source of food. Shelters are temporary, made of tree branches and jungle leaves. They wore little clothing made of barks and leaves.6 The Aetas had no government, no system of laws, no writing, no arts, and sciences.7

The third to arrive were the seafaring and tool-using Indonesians who came between 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. Indonesians were the first to reach the Philippines by sea. According to migration theory, these immigrants came into the Philippines in two waves. The first wave-Indonesian “A” arrived at about 3000 to 4000 B.C. and the second wave-Indonesian “B” came about1500 to 500 B.C. Indonesian “A” was tall, light complexion, high nose and thin lips. While the Indonesian “B”, the second type was shorter, with dark skin, has a large nose and thick lips. They were boat people who brought with them their Neolithic (New Stone) Age culture. They lived in organized settlements and wore clothing and ornaments. Indonesians know how to use copper tools and had knowledge in agriculture and mining. They are said to be the ancestors of some ethnic groups in Northern Luzon like the Apayaos, Gaddangs, Ibanags, Kalingas, and the Igorots. The Tagbanuas of Palawan; Bagobos , Manobos, Mandayas , Bukidnons, tirurays and Subanuns of Mindanao are said to be of Indonesians descent.8

The last to reach the Philippines were the Malays who came to the islands by sailboats. They migrated from 300 B.C. to the 14th and 15th century A.D. The migration theory explains that the Malays came in three waves; the first group were the more advanced who brought their mining and smelting technology and their agricultural system.9 The second group were the alphabet-using Malays. It is said that they are the ancestors of the Tagalogs, Ilokanos, Bikolanos, and Pampanguenos. The third group composed of Muslim Malays who were the ascendants of the present day Muslims. They introduced the Islam in the Philippines. The Malay migrants were medium in height, brown-skinned, dark eyes, flat noses and with straight black hair. They had writings, music, arts, and sciences. Houses were made of bamboo and palm leaves for the roof and raised above the ground. Animals like carabaos are used in farming.10 Most of the Malay settlement were riverine in location. Thus, their main source of food came from rivers and seas; hence, hunting was secondary source. They subsisted by fishing, trading, mining, and agriculture. Filipinos of today are racial mixtures of waves of outside immigrants who came to these islands.

Dr. Beyer’s migration theory became popularly known and unquestioned for so many years. Presently, the theory is now being rejected for there are no definite evidences to support it, archaeologically or historically, Prof. Jocano elaborated several grounds regarding the inadequacy of migration theory.11

1. It is too simplistic to be useful in explaining the complex problem of cultural development…

2. It is quite realistic to assume that the physical characteristics of prehistoric migrating peoples can be correlated with specific cultural developments.

3. It is doubtful whether the ancient peoples always arrived in periodic time sequences and with foreknowledge of their destination as implied by the term immigration. There are no definite data to show, moreover, that each wave of migrants really constituted a culturally and racially homogeneous group.

4. It is quite difficult to accept that the small boatloads of immigrants…, coming at certain periodic time sequences…, would be capable of maintaining large-scale community patterns in a new land under pioneer conditions. It is likewise difficult to assume that prehistoric populations didn’t yield to such hazards as infant mortality, epidemics, and malnutrition, which, even until very recently, are considered serious problems, so as to enable them to maintain a stable population that is identifiable even today.

5. The theory does not allow for variant social and cultural developments to take place in response to local ecological development situation. Instead, it impresses an orientation that all culture traits as well the physical types of our ancestors were brought into the archipelago readymade….

In addendum, The inland push theory that the aborigines of the Philippines (the Negritos) were pushed into the hills of the mountains when the Indonesians and Malays arrived must now be improved or be rejected also because of no definite proof regarding the movement of the early inhabitants to the mountain in our country.12

The Mainland Origin Hypothesis of Peter Bellwood of the Australian National University and K.C. Chang of Harvard University stresses that the movement of the immigrants Austronesians, originated from South China into Taiwan until they reached the Philippines, specifically Batanes between 5,000 B.C. to 4,000 B.C. They brought with them their home cultures and language.13 But, this theory is in the same manner with Dr. Beyer’s migration theory. The proponents did not use “migration” but instead use “movement”, and the immigrants were Austronesians not as Australoid-Sakai or Malayo-Indonesians.14

Another hypothesis, The Island Origin Hypothesis, believes that the pre-colonial ancient people emerged from an island in Southeast Asia, Wilhelm Solheim II of the University of Hawaii assumes that the proto-Austronesian developed primarily in the Northeastern Indonesia and Mindanao Island. They spread northwards with developing maritime population through the Philippine archipelago and into Taiwan. From there, they reach South China15.



Synthesis

· Migration theory was theorized by Dr. H. Otley Beyer.

· Dr. Beyer, arranged the peopling of the Philippines with the coming of the Dawn Man, Negritos, Indonesians and the Malays.

· According to Prof. Jocano, the inland push theory that the aborigines were pushed into the hills of the mountains when the Indonesians and the Malays arrived must now be improved or be rejected because of no adequate evidence supporting it with regards to the movement of the earliest known inhabitants of our country.

· The Mainland Origin Hypothesis states that the movement of immigrants Austronesians originated from South China into Taiwan and then, they reached the Philippines.

· Island Origin Hypothesis believes that pre-colonial ancient people emerged from an island in Southeast Asia; that proto- Austronesian developed primarily in Northeastern Indonesia and Mindanao Island.

Theory of Evolution

Another account of the origin of the early Filipinos comes from the archaeologists who study the past through the fossils and old material relics. Theory of evolution views that peopling of the Philippines is a result of the continuous process of human evolution which have occurred through the changes in climatic conditions in an area.16 Scientists believe that man evolved from apelike creatures into civilized homo sapiens. These apelike creatures had lived in caves for many years with their very crude tools.

Evolution theory is more challenging but scientists have to make thorough researches to clear all the problems particularly the adjustment made by early humans to the changes in the environment… “there are many loopholes in the theory of evolution… “missing link” in the evolutionary chain from ape to homo sapiens.”17

The discovery of the skullcap and jaw fragments of a human in Tabon Cave, Palawan by Dr. Robert B. Fox, an American Anthropologists of the National Museum, strengthened the belief of the evolutionists. This recovered fossilized skull and jaw fragment was dated to about 24,000 to 22,000 B.C. Evolutionists believe that the first Filipino was the “Tabon Man” who lived in caves at Tabon, Palawan before was connected to the Asian mainland. The Tabon man belonged to the Stone Age culture, thus they only used stone tools and weapons. They had no knowledge on how to use metal tools (Zaide, 1994). They used sharp rocks or stones in preparing food. Their survival depended primarily through hunting wild animals using their rough stone weapons and on forest fruits they gathered from the surroundings.18 These primitive people were medium in height, had a high eyebrows and a low forehead. The first Filipinos existed by constant struggle against nature; the adaptability to climate, habitat and defend themselves against wild animals. Life for them was tough. Ancient people like the Tabon Man lived in other parts of the world like the “Java Man”.

Scott (1984) enumerated found artifacts in different parts of the Philippines which were used by the early inhabitants which could be used as evidences that evolutions had occurred. Carbon-14 was used to determine the length of time since those relics were used. To name a few:

28, 550 B.C. Tabon Cave, Palawan: stone flake tools.

22, 000 B.C. Tabon Cave: earliest known human fossils in the Philippines.

8, 030 B.C. Musang Cave Penablanca, Cagayan stone flake tools including jade.

890 B.C. Manunggul Cave, Palawan: burial jar with statuary modeled on top.

100 B.C. Bato Cave, Sorsogon: polished stone tools and jar burial.

560 A.D. Tucucan, Mountain Province: stone tools and iron.

These archeological materials unearthed in the different parts of the Philippines bearing imprints of human use, show that people emerged and had wandered in the regions. Old material relics like burial jars,shows that they buried the dead with due respect.

In addendum, the Core Population Theory which is still evolutionists, 19 states that early Filipinos came from settlers within the islands not from the outside and in fact our ancestors migrated outside to the nearby islands to spread our own culture to other lands.

According to this theory, the early inhabitants consist of a core population to which accretions of people came who moved in through the regions. The movements of the people were erratic rather than in sequential waves. This core population shared common cultural traits or base culture. They used similarly styled tools, ornaments, pendants, housetypes, beliefs, rituals and funerary practices. And if there were differences, these were due to some factors like adaptations; they need to adjust to the changes in geographical conditions, climate, flora and fauna in the environment. 20

As documented by fossil material recovered from different regions caused by the movements of other people from Asian Mainland, peoples of prehistoric Island Southeast Asia belonged to the same race. The Filipinos, Malays, and Indonesians are the results of both the long process of evolution and the later demographic events.” They stand coequal as ethnic groups, without anyone being the dominant group, racially or culturally”.21 Filipinos were not merely receptors of outside cultures but adaptors, and in many ways, pioneer of creative changes. They developed different technology and medium to express their artistic talents (Zaide, 1994).

New breed of historians favored the core population theory in explaining the cultural integrity and adaptability of early Filipinos. This hypothesis shows a dynamic and mobile people that it emphasizes the native ability of the Filipinos to adapt, transmit, and even originate, patterns of culture and technology. We can find out that in this theory, we have shared elements in common way of life with other Southeast Asian peoples, without anyone group-Indonesian, Malay or Filipino being considered more dominant or ascendant than the others. We and the other groups are treated equally with regards to cultural affinity.

This theory is still evolutionists. Professor Jocano, its leading proponent, states that, “It might be argued on the basis of fossil evidences,that the premodern human represents the core population in the area around which genetic accretions where superimposed, as later groups of people emerged, thus, giving rise to a new population which we now recognize as contemporary Southeast Asians”.22 Furthermore, the core population could have well- evolved from the region as supported by the fossilized evidenced of early humans in Java-the Pithecanthropus erectus, the modern ones in Niah and Tabon caves- the Homo sapiens sapien23.Still, intensive researches and adequate data are needed to disclose the many loopholes and missing link in the evolutionary process.

Finally, these scientific explanations about the origin of the early Filipinos cannot even agree with the beliefs of the Christians, God created man in his image and likeness because God loves us.


Title: Evidences of Evolution

Direction: Complete the table below with the appropriate information.

ARTIFACTS

YEAR DATED

PLACE

1. Stone flake tools

28550 B. C.

Tabon Cave Palawan

2. Skull cap, jaw fragments, human fossils

22000 B.C.

Tabon Cave Palawan

3. Stone flake tools with jade

8030 B. C.

Musang Cave, Penablanca Cagayan

4. Burial jar

890 B. C.

Manunggul Cave, Palawan

5. Polished stone tools and Burial jar

100 B. C.

Bato Cave, Sorsogon

6. Stone tools and iron

560 A. D.

Tucucan Mt. Province

Synthesis

· Theory of Evolution views that peopling of the Philippines is the result of the continuous process of human evolution which have occurred through the changes in climatic conditions in an areas, thus, people on earth evolved from apelike creatures into civilized homo sapiens.

· A skull cap and jaw fragments was found in Tabon Cave, Palawan by Dr, Robert Fox and there were old other material relics recovered in the other parts of the country like stone flake tools and burial jars

· The Core Population theory states that, early Filipinos came from settlers within the islands, not from the outside

· According to the Core Population Theory, the early inhabitants consist of a core population to which accretions of people came who moved in through the regions

· Filipinos, Malays and Indonesians are the results of both the long process of evolution and they stand coequal as ethnic groups without anyone being the dominant group, racially or culturally

Application Activity

Title: Knowing our Early Ancestors

Direction: Explain the significance of knowing the origin of the Filipinos. Why do we have to know our ancestors?

For us to know our country, we must learn the valuable lessons from the past. Knowing our origin is important in our everyday living. In the same manner, we would know if we had our culture that we must be proud of and that, we did not just borrow and receive it from other cultures. Moreover, its importance is for historical values and purposes.

Our early ancestors had a culture of their own. Many evidences of their works can be seen up to this time. One is the scenic rice terraces in Northern Luzon. They had shown their artistic talents in the beauty of things like pottery and jewelry. Also, in knowing our ascendants, we can learn that they buried the dead with due respect.

We have many tribal groups in our country, each have their own customs, beliefs, arts and crafts. We should respect and we must protect these tribal minorities and understand them, even though they lived in primitive ways of living for they are part of our colorful past.

Finally, having known of the Gospel, we should take it and be a good Christians. We are created by God in His image and likeness. God is so good and if we believe that we are created by God, we must be good and love all our fellows, even though they lived in backward ways of living. Knowing our origin would leads us to have direction in life and our everyday living would be meaningful.

Synthesis

· Biblical Story states that, humankind descended from Adam and Eve- the first man and woman created by God.

· Father Francisco Colin wrote that the first settlers of our country were Tarshish with his brothers and their offsprings.

· Bisayans believed that men descended form Sikalak and Sikabay- the first man and woman who came out when a bamboo split apart.

· While the Muslims believed that the first inhabitants descended from Putri, the beautiful princess who fell on the Sulu Islands.

· The Migration theory of Dr. H. Otley Beyer arranged the peopling of the Philippines from the coming of the Dawn Man, Negritos, Indonesians and the Malays.

· Theory of Evolution states that the peopling of the Philippines is the result of the continuous process of human evolution which occurred through the changes in climatic conditions in an area.

· Evolutionists believed that humans evolved from apelike creatures into civilized homo sapiens.

· The Core Population theory states that, early Filipinos came from settlers within the islands, not from the outside and that according to it, the early inhabitants consist of a core population to which accretions of people came who moved in through the regions.

END NOTES

1Sonia M.Zaide, Philippine History and Government, 3rd ed. ( Quezon City, Philippines: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc., 1994), p.30.

2 Felipe Landa JOcano, Outline of Philippine Mythology (1969; rpt. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc., 1980), pp.35-37.

3 Ibid., pp.43-44.

4Teodoro A. Agoncillo, History of the Filipino People, 8th ed. (Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, 1990), p.21.

5 Sonia M. Zaide, The Philippines A Unique Nation, 2nd ed. ( Quezon City: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc, 1999), p.32,.

6 F. Landa Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage ( Manila: Punland Research House, 1998), p.58.

7 Zaide, Philippine History and Government, 3rd ed. op.cit., p33.

8 Ibid.,p.34.

9 Lea T. Castelo, This Is The Philippines ( Manila: Melanicio M. Castelo, 1977), p.11.

10 Francisco M. Zulueta and Abriel M. Nebres, Philippine History and Government Through The Years ( Mandaluyong City, Philippines: National Bookstore, 2003), p.21.

11 Jocano, Filipino Prehistory : Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage, Op.cit., p.61.

12 Ibid., p.39.

13 Ma. Christine N. Halili, Philippine History ( Manila: Rex Bookstore Inc., 2004), p.40.

14 Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage, Op.cit., p.64.

15 Halili, Op.cit., p.40.

16 Jocano, Op.cit., p.52.

17 Zaide, The Pilippines A Unique Nation, Op.cit., p.28.

18 Zulueta et.al. Op.cit., p.20.

19 Zaide, Op.cit., p.37.

20 F. Landa Jocano, Questions and Challenges In Philippine Prehistory (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1975), p.49.

21Ibid, p.54.

22 Jocano, Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage, Op.cit., p.53.





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